Dr David Turton
Dr Adrian Lapthorn
Prof Klaas Wynne
Mr Thomas Harwood
Proteins ‘ring like bells’
As far back as 1948, Erwin Schrödinger—the inventor of modern quantum mechanics—published the book “What is life?” In it, he suggested that quantum mechanics and coherent ringing might be at the basis of all biochemical reactions. At the time, this idea never found wide acceptance because it was generally assumed that vibrations in protein molecules would be too rapidly damped. Now, we have proven he was on the right track after all.
Using modern laser spectroscopy, we have been able to measure the vibrational spectrum of the enzyme lysozyme, a protein that fights off bacteria. We discovered that this enzyme rings like a bell with a frequency of a few terahertz or a million-million hertz. Most remarkably, the ringing involves the entire protein, meaning the ringing motion could be responsible for the transfer of energy across proteins.
The experiments show that the ringing motion lasts for only a picosecond or one millionth of a millionth of a second. Biochemical reactions take place on a picosecond timescale and the we believe that evolution has optimised enzymes to ring for just the right amount of time. Any shorter, and biochemical reactions would become inefficient as energy is drained from the system too quickly. Any longer and the enzyme would simple oscillate forever: react, unreact, react, unreact, etc. The picosecond ringing time is just perfect for the most efficient reaction.
These tiny motions enable proteins to morph quickly so they can readily bind with other molecules, a process that is necessary for life to perform critical biological functions like absorbing oxygen and repairing cells.
The findings have been published in Nature Communications 5, 3999 (2014)
This research shows us that proteins have mechanical properties that are highly unexpected and geared towards maximising efficiency. Future work will show whether these mechanical properties can be used to understand the function of complex living systems.
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The research was carried out in the Ultrafast Chemical Physics group of Prof Klaas Wynne in collaboration with Dr David Turton, Dr Hans Senn, and Dr Adrian Lapthorn (Chemistry, Glasgow) and Dr Elizabeth Ellis and Mr Thomas Harwood (Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences).
This is a modified press release Proteins ‘ring like bells’